Pronunciation of the Spanish Alphabet: 27 Letters, 34 Sounds, 38 Mouth Positions (with audio)

One of the first things we learn when we study a foreign language is the alphabet – perfect, we can spell but can you pronounce accurately?

There are different reasons why you have a terrible accent but most of the mispronunciations are the consequence of reading a symbol (letter) and saying it as we’d do in our native language.

And it’s very tough to shut that association (letter-sound) off.

For example, most English natives pronounce the letter B in “la bota” (SP) as the letter B in “a boat” (EN). (Error!)

Your brain did the effort to learn this association a long time ago, and now, when you see the letter B, you don’t think how to pronounce it.

Your mouth produces the sound automatically.

The problem is that English, Vietnamese, or Spanish native speakers read and pronounce multiple letters in a different way so you’re likely to produce the wrong sound if you speak in Spanish or any other foreign language.

Spanish is not a phonetic language

You probably heard that, in Spanish, we pronounce the words as we spell them.
It’s a lie.

Some people may disagree and they will say “Spanish is a phonetic language” -and they’re quite right. Nonetheless, less than half of the letters of the Spanish alphabet are always pronounced the way they’re written.

It’s mathematics:

  • The Spanish alphabet has 27 letters.
  • There are, at least, 34 sounds in (European/Castillian) Spanish, so
  • Some letters are pronounced in 2 -or more- different ways, and
  • Some letters are pronounced the same way.

There’s more than one way to pronounce most of the letters, like the letters B, C or N.

If you want to avoid boring people to tears, if you want to hold a fluent conversation and not forcing people to put too much effort into it (so that people pay attention to you), you should be able to speak clearly.

And that’s far easier if you know how to produce the Spanish sounds. And if you learn (it barely takes 1 or 2 days) the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) so that you can pronounce any word in Spanish, even if it’s the first time you see it.

Today you’re going to see the letters and sounds of Spanish:

  • Examples of Spanish words for each sound.
  • English words that contain that specific Spanish sound (or a similar one).
  • Audio. Because if we speak about sounds you should be able to listen to them.
  • A final image to summarize all the info.

When you pronounce Spanish, usually your mouth muscles are tenser than when you speak in English.

Pronunciation of the Spanish alphabet

Learning how to pronounce every single dialect of Spanish would be confusing (and it would take a lot of time) so I’m going to focus on Castilian Spanish -the standard European Spanish.

In the second column, you’ll see a symbol from the IPA that represents a specific sound – usually common in more than language.

In order to make it easier I’ve substituted some of the symbols of the IPA. For example, we’ll use [ñ] for the letter Ñ instead of [ɲ]. Let’s keep things simple.

In the third column, you may find this symbol [∼]. It means that the word in English contains a sound similar to the Spanish one (but not exactly the same one).


Letter a



alfabeto, casa, amiga

∼ fun, fine

Click to see how to pronounce the Spanish vowels.

Letter b




barco, hambre, cambio

Vive en Barcelona.

Lo hice con buena intención.

∼ bus, bean chamber, embrace

Click to see how to pronounce the letters B and V.

Spanish B has a dry sound and it’s softer than the English B -it doesn’t explode.


abrir, hablar, abuelo

Me gustaría ir a Barcelona.

The lips are not hermetically sealed. The sound is produced by letting escape from the mouth a trickle of air.

Letter c



vaca, color, cuando

∼sock, fake

More info on how to pronounce Spanish C.

The letter C has a dry sound and -like letter B- doesn’t explode either: it’s a voiceless sound so you could pronounce it even if you hold your breath.


hacer, cielo

thing, tooth

The sound is produced by the air getting out of your mouth, between the teeth and the tongue.


ocho, chica, coche

chair, coach

It sounds similar in English, but not the same. In English, it sounds kind of “shhhh” (chshh), in Spanish it sounds more like “sssss” (chs).

Try lifting the tip of your tongue.

Letter d



¿De dónde vienes, Aldo?

More info on how to pronounce Spanish D and mouth positioning.

Here I wrote only the 2 official sounds but in colloquial speech, we may pronounce it up to 4+1 different ways!


Tu padre viene después de desayunar.

this, those

Your tongue should be in the same position as when you pronounce the SOFT C but, this time, the sound is produced by the throat. Touch it. You should notice that it vibrates.

*Sometimes we don’t pronounce the letter D.

Letter e



elefante, edad, este

∼ went, pay

More info on how to produce the sound of the Spanish vowels.

Letter f



feo, frío, África

fox, affair



Dafne, Afganistán, afgano

fox, affair


Letter g



geografía, energía

(raspier English H)

More info and tips to pronounce Spanish G.

TIP: Pronounce the English H but lift your tongue a little bit, just as if you were going to pronounce the letter K.


gas, gol, engrasar

gas, go, gate engage, English

Throaty sound. The Spanish SOFT G  doesn’t have the touch of [k] -like the letter G in English.


pagar, algo, agua

The feeling in your throat/back palate should be similar to caress the hairs in your arm, without actually touching the arm.
Imagine you have hair in your palate and you have to caress it. The sound is produced when your tongue moves away from the palate.

Letter h


No soundahora, hielo, humoIt only has a sound in words borrowed from other languages, like hamster or hockey.

Letter i



indio, limón, mira

∼ need, you

Learn the differences between English and Spanish vowels.


In diphthongs.
viuda, viento, Indio

∼ yellow, yes


Letter j



caja, traje, cojín, abajo, jugar

The letter J sounds like the HARD G.

Letter k



koala, kiwi, kilómetro

∼sock, fake

The letter K sounds like the HARD C.

Letter l



luego, lila, ala

It doesn’t sound like in ball or cable. Your tongue doesn’t touch your front teeth at all.


alto, aldea, oculta

Your tongue is closer to your front teeth than the previous [lʲ] and may (barely) touch them. Even though the position of your tongue is slightly different, it sounds like [l].


alzar, calcio, calcetín

The tip of your tongue is placed where your upper teeth meet the gum. It sounds like [l] too.



lluvia, olla, calla


jeans, yes

The double L sounds like Spanish Y.

Letter m



montaña, mamá, comer

mountain, mum


Letter n





nido, andar, nana

name, now



once, quince, concierto

The tip of your tongue appears between your teeth.


andar, entrada, cantar

The tip of your tongue is placed where your upper teeth meet the gum.


ancla, encontrar, inglés

bang, English



enjaular, ángel, injerto

Guisantes con jamón.

You should put your tongue further back. Its position is the same when you pronounce letter J but your throat must be closed so the air comes out through your nose.


enfriar, confiar, infravalorar

The letter N is pronounced with your upper teeth and lower lip (like the letter F).


envase, envidia, invitado

moon, comb


Letter ñ



uña, mañana, niño

The letter Ñ has only one sound -it isn’t the same as “ny” or “n+i” (two sounds). Letter Ñ sounds like French “gn”.

The middle part of the tongue touches the whole middle palate. The tip of the tongue doesn’t touch it. The sound is nasal and it’s produced when you separate your tongue from the upper palate*. Before the actual sound -when your tongue is still touching the palate- you will hear a nasal N. You should keep that nasal sound when your tongue moves away from the palate.

Letter o



oso, color, oro

∼ mall, talk

More info and tips to pronounce Spanish O.

Letter p



pelo, pantalón, piano

up, cap

More info on how to pronounce Spanish P.

Letter q



que, qui
queso, pequeño, quiero, aq


∼sock, fake

The letter Q sounds like hard C. It’s always followed by “ue” or “ui” but the letter U is never pronounced.

Letter r



caro, horno, arpa

∼bitter, butter (Am. EN)

The letter R sounds like “tt” in butter (in American English).


(trilled sound)

rueda, rubio
sonreir, alrevés
carro, perro, turrrón



All you need to roll your R’s (step by step).

TIP: Call me crazy but, for some people, it’s easier to get the sound of rolled R if they do a headstand. Well… actually, it’s enough if you look down. (Gravity helps to keep your tongue on your palate).

Letter s



seta, salir, fiesta

see, soon


Letter t



tener, tienda, tren

∼ football

More info on mouth positioning and how to pronounce Spanish T. 

Letter u



luna, cuerda, uno

∼ moon, wet

More info on mouth positioning and how to pronounce Spanish U. 


In diphthongs.
abuelo, huevo, agua


∼ kiwi, web


Letter v



vela, viejo, video
envidia, envío, invitado

bus, bean chamber, embrace

More info on how to pronounce the letters B and V.


avión, uva, Eva

It sounds like a SOFT B.

Letter w

(uve doble)


whisky, waterpolo, Hawai

∼ kiwi, web



Wagner, Wamba

brown, brave

It’s pronounced like the letters V and B.

Letter x



xilófono, xenofobia

sea, saw

The letter X sounds like S.

taxi, oxígeno, saxofón


It’s the only Spanish letter which is pronounced like 2 sounds: [k] + [s]

Letter y



ya, cónyuge, inyección
jeans, yes
The letter Y sounds like Spanish “ll”.


yoyó, vaya, ayer

TIP: Try to say jeans without crushing your tongue against the palate.


jersey, buey, rey

yes, me

It sounds like the Spanish vowel I.

Letter z



zapato, buzón, zumo


The letter Z is pronounced like a SOFT C.


hazme, hallazgo

this, those

It sounds like a SOFT D.

The 34 sounds of Spanish in short

European Spanish has 34 sounds.

However, there are 38 IPA symbols. Why are 4 extra symbols?

There are 2 sounds that natives produce in different parts of their mouth – depending on the following sound – for better flow: the sound of the letters N and L (see the table below).

The letters N and L may have a small symbol below: “ᴨ” or “+”.

  • n̪, l̪: Dental sound.
    “ᴨ” indicates that the sound is produced by placing your tongue where your upper teeth meet the gum.
  • n̟, l̟: Advanced sound.
    “+” means that the letter is produced forward. For example, to pronounce [n̟] your tongue touches your lower teeth too (quince).
Spanish IPA International Phonetic Alphabet pronunciation sounds to speak clearly, fluently, confidently, naturally, like a native Spaniard without English accent Alfabeto Fonétivo Internacional (AFI) pronunciación español sonidos para mejorar el habla
*Continuous sound: it means that the sound doesn’t end as soon as it starts (like [p], that ends and starts when you separate your lips). You can keep a continuous sound for several seconds. For example, you can say “nnnnnnnot” (continuous sound) but it’s physically impossible to say “nottttttt”.

To practice the sounds of Spanish, you can follow the recommendations of these 5 experts to improve your pronunciation and listening.

Learn more about Spanish pronunciation

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